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This paper examines the gender wage gap among managers of nonprofit organizations using newly collected detailed data on compensation of managers and accounting characteristics of nonprofits in the U.S. There are several main findings. First, women lead roughly nineteen percent of all nonprofit organizations in the sample. Second, on average, women who lead nonprofits earn roughly twenty percent less than men who lead nonprofits. Third, the fraction of nonprofits lead by women varies dramatically based on characteristics of the organization such as size (measured, for example, by income, revenue, or assets) or the “industry” of the organization. I find a generally negative relationship between the size of the nonprofit and the likelihood that a woman runs it. Finally, once even simple characteristics of the nonprofits are controlled for, the male -female salary gap in this sample of nonprofits is not significantly different from zero.


Suggested Citation
Hallock, K. (2002). The gender pay and employment gaps for top managers in U.S. nonprofits. Retrieved [insert date], from Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations site:

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