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[Excerpt] Why are boys so much more likely to be academically disengaged in secondary school? It’s not because school is too difficult for them. Standardized test scores are comparable and they are less likely to say they “Find the schoolwork too hard to understand”. It’s not because they believe that ‘the things’ they ‘are learning in school’ are less important “for your later life”. Answers to this question are unrelated to gender. They also enjoy “being at school” just as much as girls. So what is the cause? This paper will attempt to answer this question and then suggest school policies that can improve peer support for effort and engagement.


Suggested Citation
Bishop, J. H. & Bishop, M. M. (2010). Are anti-engagement male peer cultures causing male underperformance in school? [Electronic version]. Retrieved [insert date] from Cornell University, ILR School site:

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Copyright by the authors.