[Excerpt] China’s industrial policies have had a profound effect on the U.S. economy. The trade deficit with China in goods reached $266 billion in 2008, resulting in slower U.S. economic growth and fewer jobs here than if the trade relationship were more balanced between imports and exports. Witnesses differed as to the degree that the overall U.S. trade deficit would decline if the trading relationship between the two countries were brought into balance. But it is significant that the U.S. deficit with China represented 33 percent of the total U.S. trade deficit with the world and 42.6 percent of the deficit with non-oil exporting countries. In addition, it is not just the size of the deficit that policymakers should examine, but the changing nature of its composition. The United States in 2008 ran a record $72.7 billion trade deficit with China in advanced technology products.