Publication Date



[Excerpt] As Congress develops policies and programs and makes appropriations to help address the nation’s needs for scientists and engineers, it may wish to consider past, current, and projected S&E workforce trends. In this regard, this report provides employment, wage, and unemployment information for the computer occupations, mathematical occupations, engineers, life scientists, physical scientists, and S&E management occupations, in three sections:

  • “Current Employment, Wages, and Unemployment” provides a statistical snapshot of the S&E workforce in 2011 (the latest year for which data are available) with respect to occupational employment, wage, and unemployment data.
  • “Recent Trends in Employment, Wages, and Unemployment” provides a perspective on how S&E employment, wages, and unemployment have changed during the 2008-2011 period.
  • “Employment Projections, 2010-2020” provides an analysis of the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ occupational projections examining how the number employed in S&E occupations are expected to change during the 2010-2020 period, as well as how many openings will be created by workers exiting each occupation (replacement needs).

A final section, “Concluding Observations,” provides various stakeholder perspectives that Congress may wish to consider as it seeks to ensure that the United States has an adequate S&E workforce to meet the demands of the 21st century.


Suggested Citation
Sargent, Jr., J. F. (2013). The U.S. science and engineering workforce: Recent, current, and projected employment, wages, and unemployment. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

A more recent version of this report can be found here: