Publication Date



[Excerpt] Self-employment in the European Union is in a process of continual change. While the proportion of the self-employed in the EU28 Member States is stable, its composition has shifted. While on the one hand there has been a decline in employment in agriculture (generally self-employment), on the other hand the proportions of self-employed workers in the services sector and public sector have increased. Another recent phenomenon is the increase in the proportion of self-employed people who do not employ workers. Across the European Union, some countries have experienced a greater degree of change in the proportion of self-employed workers than in others. In general, self-employment has become more varied and this diversity presents a challenge for policymakers.


Suggested Citation
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. (2017). Exploring self-employment in the European Union. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.