[Excerpt] The technical and vocational education and training (TVET) system in Tajikistan is largely supply-driven. Most course structure and content are outdated, resulting in a mismatch between graduate skills and labor market demand. Ineffective engagement of private sector partners in TVET, both employers and private trainers, is a key challenge. Skills gaps to address energy efficiency and clean energy technologies are also an issue. Most TVET institutions have obsolete and inadequate equipment, dilapidated school buildings, and poorly maintained dormitories. The condition of physical facilities and the lack of modern curricula reinforce the generally low social image of TVET, and contribute to the system’s inability to attract students.