Publication Date



[Excerpt] As in all market economies, wage bargaining in the European Union Member States is fundamental to enabling labour as a factor of production to obtain its fair share of the production output (and thereby participate in prosperity) and to securing a high level of employment in the economy (thereby supporting aggregate demand and contributing to social inclusion). In the EU, around two-thirds of workers are covered by some form of collective agreement, which demonstrates the importance of wage bargaining to macroeconomic outcomes in the European social model.

This report provides a quantitative analysis of how the features of national wage-bargaining regimes affect pay outcomes. The analysis builds on the theoretical propositions that both highly centralised and highly decentralised regimes align wages and productivity, ensuring a high level of employment, and that a high degree of coordination of wage bargaining can moderate wage increases, leading to macroeconomic stability.


Suggested Citation
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. (2015). Pay in Europe in different wage-bargaining regimes. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.