Development Aims and Impacts. The Community-Based Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project aimed at expanding the coverage of improved water supply and sanitation facilities to poor and remote areas, and improving health and hygiene practices related to waterborne and sanitation- related diseases. Key project results were (i) water supply services provided to 90,397 households, covering 716,542 people; (ii) water supply coverage increased from 72% (2002) to 89% (2010) with marked decrease in the time spent by women and girls in transporting water; (iii) latrines constructed in 44,768 households, of which 8,909 were in ultrapoor households and 354 were school latrines—contributed to the safety of women and girls; (iv) sanitation coverage among the rural population increased from 20% (2002) to 33.5% (2010); and (v) a total of 690 water users’ committees were formed with 52% of women members—Dalits and ethnic minorities— represented almost proportionately to their percentage in the general population. The participation of women in decision making in water users’ committees contributed to the sustainability of the water systems and changed the status of women in communities.
ADB Processes and Management Tools. A specific project component addressed gender and social inclusion objectives. Also, gender, caste, and ethnicity considerations were incorporated into all other project components, and corresponding strategy was developed. This strategy was based on earlier evaluations and policy dialogues with local authorities that noted the need for specific measures to address gender and other inequalities. Gender and social development specialists were included in the project team—at both central and regional levels. These specialists also participated in the monitoring and evaluation team, strengthening attention to gender, caste, and ethnicity issues. Specific participation targets were set at the outset. Sex- and caste-disaggregated data were collected, analyzed, and included in the project performance management system.