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This paper gives an overview of the transformation of the German labour market since the mid-1990s with a special focus on the changing patterns of labour market segmentation or ‘dualization’ of employment in Germany. While labour market duality in Germany can partially be attributed to labour market reforms promoting in particular non-standard forms of employment and allowing for an expansion of low pay, structural changes in the economy as well as strategic choices by employers and social partners also play a prominent role.


Suggested Citation
Eichhorst, W. & Tobsch, V. (2013). Has atypical work become typical in Germany? (Employment Working Paper No. 145). Geneva: International Labor Organization.