Socio-Productive Models in France: An Empirical Dynamic Overview, 1992-2004
The authors assess the evolution of French workplaces over the periods 1992–1993, 1998–1999, and 2004–2005. Using French employment relations survey data (REPONSE), they analyze the empirical relevance of socio-productive organizational models in light of three dimensions: work organization, human resource management (HRM), and industrial relations. Results indicate the emergence of two “innovative” models: the “Toyotist” model, featuring just-in-time organizational methods, innovative HRM systems, high employee participation, and low union presence; and the “neo-Taylorist” model, featuring low innovation, low investment in HRM, strict managerial control with minimal employee participation, and average union presence. Data also reveal the existence of an additional model: the “public-in-transition” model, featuring a mixed HRM focus that is part individual and part collective; moreover, workplaces feature a high and varied union presence and autonomous work groups. Overall findings indicate a dual movement of socio-productive models: the development of the Toyotist model occurred mainly between 1992–1993 and 1998–1999 for some workplaces whereas for others, such as those aging or becoming privatized, there appears to have been a shift to the neo-Taylorist model for the period 1998–2004.