This paper is the first in a series aimed at analyzing disability employment policy and developing recommendations for policy reform in middle income countries. As the first paper in this series, this study provides a general overview of the relationship between disability and employment, focusing primarily on disability employment policies in OECD countries. It discusses how well these policies address the dual functions of integration and income security, and reports on recent trends. A variety of policy tools are examined: full and partial disability cash benefits, vocational rehabilitation and training, supported work, sheltered and public sector employment, hiring quotas, tax incentives for employers, and anti-discrimination laws. A general set of recommendations are offered on designing disability employment policies in emerging economies.