Publication Date

March 2004


We describe patterns in the composition of American-citizen doctorate recipients from the early 1960s to 2000. The propensity of bachelor’s degree recipients to earn PhDs varied widely during the 1960s and 1970s, especially for men, but has been relatively constant since the early 1980s. PhD propensity varies widely across students from different types of BA institutions, with higher propensities among those attending research universities and selective liberal-arts colleges. The share of PhDs awarded to women increased dramatically over the past 40 years and was driven largely by increases in the number of women earning BAs.


Suggested Citation
Groen, J. A. and Rizzo, M. J. (2004) The changing composition of American-citizen PhDs (CHERI Working Paper #48). Retrieved [insert date], from Cornell University, ILR School site:

Required Publisher Statement
Published by the Cornell Higher Education Research Institute, Cornell University.