Publication Date

October 1993


Two normative orientations: work as an obligation/duty versus work as an entitlement/right are compared among representative samples from the American, German, Belgian, and Japanese labor force exploring four domains: "Work itself', "Meaningful work", "Work Improvements", and "Care for the Future" at two points in time. Results reveal: Stability over time, and significant differences related to age, occupational group membership, and country.


Suggested Citation
Ruiz-Quintanilla, S. A., & England, G. W. (1993). Balanced and imbalanced societal norms about working: a comparison of four national labor markets at two time points (CAHRS Working Paper #93-20). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies.