A surge in limited English proficiency (LEP) enrollment became a nationwide phenomenon between 1995 and 2005, as virtually all regions of the country experienced a rapid growth in immigrant population. In Buffalo, the increase in ELL students stemmed largely from the active resettlement of refugees from around the world in Buffalo. In 2004-2005, Buffalo had 2,539 LEP students who collectively spoke 46 different languages. In 2009-2010, that enrollment number shot up to 3,481 students, who spoke 67 languages. In Buffalo, as in many locales, the rise in ELL learners has coincided with a dramatic increase in high stakes standardized testing; unfair testing policies being employed have often failed to reflect the realities of English language learning.