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In November 2013, New York State voters will decide whether to amend the state constitution to expand casino gambling. Currently, the state has five casinos run by Indian tribes. The proposed amendment would allow up to seven non-tribal casinos in areas not including New York City and not including areas, such as Western New York, where the state is bound by an exclusivity agreement with an Indian tribe. A law expanding casino gambling has passed the state legislature, but, because the state constitution forbids gambling, it will not take effect unless voters decide to amend the constitution. This policy brief argues that casino gambling creates far more costs than benefits and exacerbates poverty among the state’s residents.