Publication Date



Equality/Civil Rights, Criminal Justice, Government


Over the past several decades, Upstate New York has transitioned from a stable middle-income region to one with serious income and economic problems. In 1969, per capita personal income (PCPI) in Upstate exceeded that of the United States, but by 2000, it trailed the national average by 11 percent. These lagging incomes likely contribute to the substantial out-migration of mobile residents from the area—especially in the mid-1990s—which in turn is threatening economic growth. At the same time, many of those who stay increasingly lack the resources to pay for goods and services that other U.S. residents enjoy, further exacerbating economic stagnation in the region. Both of these trends—population decline and economic malaise—are the subjects of other recent reports in this series.