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At national level, the development of effective labour movements has involved the interaction of two processes: the establishment of formal organizational structures, and the rise of rank-and-file pressure and protest. At European level, recent years have seen significant organizational developments; this article discusses the role of the European Trade Union Confederation and the emergent European Works Councils. As yet, however, there has been no parallel evidence of transnational labour protest, and indeed the obstacles are considerable. Nevertheless, institutional frameworks may create a 'political opportunity structure' which facilitates its emergence.


Suggested Citation
Turner, L. (1996). The Europeanization of labour: Structure before action [Electronic version]. Retrieved [insert date], from Cornell University, ILR School site:

Required Publisher’s Statement
© SAGE Publications. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.
Final version published as Turner, L. (1996). The Europeanization of labour: Structure before action. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 2(3), 325-344.