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[Excerpt] Educational reformers and the majority of the American public believe that teachers ask too little of their pupils. African-American and Hispanic parents, in particular, criticize the low expectations and goals that teachers and school administrators often set for their children. These low expectations, they believe, result in watered-down curricula and a tolerance of mediocre teaching and inappropriate student behavior. The result is that the prophecy of low achievement is self-fulfilling.


Suggested Citation
Bishop, J. H., & Mane, F. (2001). Incentive effects New York’s minimum competency exams [Electronic version]. In M. C. Wang & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), School choice or best systems: what improves education? (pp. 323-356). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Copyright by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Published version posted with special permission of the copyright holder. To purchase a copy of School choice or best systems: what improves education?, visit