Publication Date



“Educational reformers and most of the American public think that teachers ask too little of their pupils. These low expectations, they believe, result in watered-down curricula and a tolerance of mediocre teaching and inappropriate student behavior. The prophecy of low achievement thus becomes self-fulfilling.”


Suggested Citation
Bishop, J. (2001). Using high stakes tests to raise achievement [Electronic version]. Students continually learning: A report of presentations, student voices, and state actions (pp. 73-80). Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.

Required Publisher Statement
Originally published as: Bishop, J. "Using High Stakes to Raise Achievement." Students Continually Learning. (Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers, 2001), 73-80. Published version posted with special permission of the copyright holder.