[Excerpt] This chapter examines the structure, adoption, usage, and impact of non-union grievance procedures. Non-union grievance procedures vary widely in their structure from informal open door policies to elaborate peer review and arbitration based procedures. Adoption of these procedures is driven by a range of factors including union substation, litigation avoidance, and as part of human resource strategies focused on promoting high commitment from employees. Non-union grievance procedures tend to be used less frequently that their union counterparts, but usage levels vary based on the structure of the procedure with those incorporating non-managerial decision-makers exhibiting higher usage levels. Although non-union grievance procedures are often put in place with the goal of enhancing organizational justice, a common problem is retaliation within the organization against grievants who use the procedures.