Although leadership has long been recognized as critical in virtual environments, observers have noted that a surprisingly small number of studies have focused on virtual leadership. In the current chapter we examine what we currently know about virtual leadership and identify promising future research directions. We begin by examining changes in the leadership context, most notably advances in technology and the growing adoption of virtual work arrangements. We then trace the evolution of the research that has examined virtual leadership at both the dyadic and team levels, highlighting key conceptual and empirical advances. Finally, we conclude the chapter by discussing future research directions that have the potential to make important contributions to both theory and practice in the area of virtual leadership.