Although extensive research exists on the publishing success of academics, few studies have examined factors influencing the publishing success of graduate students and young academics. Data from a survey of 12,000 graduate students in the Humanities and related social sciences was used to examine citizenship, gender and racial/ethnic differences in publishing success during graduate school and the first three years after graduation. The results of this analysis indicate that international students have the highest publication rates during graduate school as well as in the first three years following receipt of degree. Results also indicate that female graduate students are less likely than male graduate students to publish, a gap that remains in the years following graduate school. Finally, results indicate that U.S. citizen minority students exhibit lower levels of publishing success compared with non-minority students during graduate school, but that this gap that disappears within the first few years after graduate school.