[Excerpt] The China study discusses the main economic and labour market issues and implications related to population ageing in China and presents an overview of current policy responses. Section 1 of the study describes the main current and future demographic trends. Section 2 analyzes overall labour market trends in China and labour market outcomes of the older population. The section also explores the key determinants for termination of employment of older workers and illustrates key issues related with extending working lives of older workers as well as employers’ attitudes towards them. Section 3 focuses on the poverty incidence in the old age in urban and rural areas and presents recent government interventions targeting poor elderly people. Section 4 presents the main challenges of the current pension system in both urban and rural China. The final section puts forward some policy suggestions towards ensuring a secure and decent old age for the Chinese population.