[Excerpt] The working poor are a substantial group in the overall poverty statistics and are estimated to constitute 10% of European workers. This report examines in-work poverty in the European Union, picking up where a previous Eurofound report on this subject, published in 2010, ended. It looks at how in-work poverty evolved in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008, based on analysis of the latest data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). While the prevalence of in-work poverty has been studied before, less is known about what it means to be one of the working poor. This report examines the social ramifications of in-work poverty by describing the well-being and living conditions of the working poor. It also looks at different measures adopted by governments to prevent or alleviate in-work poverty, especially indirect measures that improve the living standards of the working poor. These indirect measures have not received much policy attention compared with direct measures to increase incomes, such as minimum wages and social transfers.