This chapter provides a review of the recent literature on compensation consultants and executive pay. Six major pay consulting firms dominate the market. These firms advise client firms about executive pay and frequently supply other services such as actuarial work. There is some evidence that CEO pay is higher in firms that use compensation consultants. However, the hypothesis that CEO pay is higher in firms whose consultants face potential conflicts of interest, such as cross-selling of other services, is not as empirically robust.