[Excerpt] Displaced labor has many expressions, three of which are depicted in this book: unemployed African Americans, ghost villages in Sonora, and Mexican immigrants to the United States. In following the "chicken trail," I connect the U.S. labor shortage and the Mexican labor surplus. While transformations in the U.S. poultry industry and its labor-management regime created new demands for cheap labor, changes in the Mexican economy, including poultry production, contributed to labor displacement. Many of the displaced entered the migrant stream to the United States. By the 1990s, that stream was flowing past traditional gateway locations (such as California) into southeastern states. Here migrants happened upon an ongoing labor displacement of African Americans.