Using diverse data from union members in Australia, Sweden, and the United States, this paper develops a new approach to study the dual commitment construct. Specifically, the paper investigates whether dual commitment (i.e., simultaneous commitment to the company and the union) represents a latent second-order factor underlying both union and company commitment factors. Accordingly, alternative models of the factor structure of union and company commitment are analysed to find the best fitting first-order models using the confirmatory factor analysis technique of LISREL VII. These best fitting factors are then subjected to second-order confirmatory factor analysis. The results using this sophisticated methodological approach indicate no support for a latent general dual commitment construct. Curiously, the results are similar to those obtained by other researchers who have so far failed to identify a dual commitment construct, but are at odds with the views of practitioners, who continue to pursue human resource management policies that are geared to increasing the dual commitment of employees. The implications for future research are discussed.